How the Bollywood sports biopic 83 furthers masculinity, nationalist view


Contemporary films tend to focus on stories of the Indian underdog emerging triumphant after facing adversity or a threat from an “outsider”: the triumph of the charismatic masculine Hinduised hero who fulfils his duty, saves the nation and reclaims India’s lost pride.

This isn’t a new phenomenon. Bollywood’s formula of promoting nationalist rhetoric via glorification of past heroes or events can be traced back to the early years of the Marathi theatre.

In the 19th century, Marathi theatre staged historical events still within living memory: re-telling stories of the great Maratha Empire, which covered much of the Indian subcontinent from 1645 to 1818.




With the subcontinent under British rule, popular plays furthered the calls of the “extremist” political leader Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920) for swaraj, or self-rule. The ever-present Maratha past became a major source of inspiration for the playwrights and served the cause of emergent Hindu

Today, is demonstrating a renewed purpose of creating new myths, and it is on full display in the new film 83, a sports biopic based on India’s first win at the cricket world cup in 1983.

We follow the team in the months leading up to their defeat of the West Indies at Lord’s Cricket Ground in London under new captain (Ranveer Singh).

A team of seemingly inglorious young Indian men emerge victorious on the cricket field in a film about regaining honour and masculine pride for the country.

It is a film about much more than just the 1983 world cup. Like a propagandist tool, 83 draws on the rich sport tradition of India and serves the nationalist cause. Sports, the final frontier of masculinity

This celebration of the nationalist cause is most visible in 83’s representation of gender.

At the centre of the film is team captain Kapil Dev, a popular sports hero of the 80s. His authenticity and gentlemanly demeanour warrant affection from people of all ages, and the film shows his masculinity acting as a stabilising force for the nation in flux.

But also inherent in this masculine ideal is a belief in the Hindu nationalist vision of hegemonic masculinity: a belief in the “normality” of men’s subordination of women and other minorities.

83 celebrates the boys club with masculine banter. Each player is focused on proving their masculine status as an ideal son who wants to make his father proud; a responsible husband who protects and provides for his wife; and, most importantly, a worthy son of the motherland the whole nation reveres.

The players are often called “freedom fighters” to underline their combative spirit, and Kapil Dev’s iconic bat is referred to as his “sword”: politically charged language which reverbs in calls from some Hindu leaders for Muslim genocide.

The female ideal is also depicted according to the nationalist view: Indian women should be dignified, docile and a possessor of superior spirituality.

Kapil Dev’s wife, Romi (Deepika Padukone), is a morale booster. She is a virtuous cheerleader who remains subordinate. Her responsibility is to remind the dispirited Kapil of the importance of his duty as she asks him to “play for that little boy inside you”.

This trope of the little boy, who embodies and helps channel the hopes and dreams of a young nation, is exploited throughout the film.

This boy lends an air of innocence and purity to the cause of winning.

The audience is called on to align with his hopes and disappointment – and ultimately support the Indian heroes out there to win.

Typical of nationalist rhetoric, 83 depicts rival teams and other nationalities as caricatures. West Indies fans are invariably seen wearing bright prints and dancing to African drums – the Indian fans let go of differences and unite to support the team. The West Indies’ cricketers are chewing gum – the Indians are routinely speaking to their families on long distance calls.

This stereotyping aligns more with the current brand of Hindu nationalism, and less with the country’s dynamism of the 1980s. Brand nationalism

Globally, provides a lens to understand Indian culture and has proved to be India’s most effective soft power in maintaining diplomatic ties.

But in India, Bollywood often acts as an agent of the ideological work of the far-right nationalist government. Biopics and period films emphasise the cult of personality and celebrate patriotic feats.

The Conversation logo

Given the growing spectacle of communal violence in India and the increased popularity of depicting Bollywood heroes as mercenaries, one ought to question what 83 says to and about the audience.

83 is not simply a retelling of the story of a sports team. It is a product of both the emerging brand and Bollywood’s tapping into the political zeitgeist.

With its celebration of Hindu masculine power, 83 feels like a film which is working to win consent for the populist and controversial leader Narendra Modi – and make the audience more susceptible to political manipulation and control.The Conversation

Radhika Raghav, Sessional Lecturer and Tutor in Gender Studies and Sociology, University of Otago

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

The Conversation





Source link

istanbul escort aksaray escort arnavutköy escort ataköy escort avcılar escort avcılar türbanlı escort avrupa yakası escort bağcılar escort bahçelievler escort bahçeşehir escort bakırköy escort başakşehir escort bayrampaşa escort beşiktaş escort beykent escort beylikdüzü escort beylikdüzü türbanlı escort beyoğlu escort büyükçekmece escort cevizlibağ escort çapa escort çatalca escort esenler escort esenyurt escort esenyurt türbanlı escort etiler escort eyüp escort fatih escort fındıkzade escort florya escort gaziosmanpaşa escort güneşli escort güngören escort halkalı escort ikitelli escort istanbul escort kağıthane escort kayaşehir escort küçükçekmece escort mecidiyeköy escort merter escort nişantaşı escort sarıyer escort sefaköy escort silivri escort sultangazi escort suriyeli escort şirinevler escort şişli escort taksim escort topkapı escort yenibosna escort zeytinburnu escort porno 1080p porno izle 4k porno izle 720p porno izle abella danger alman alman porno alman porno izle aloha tube porno amatör amatör porno amatör porno izle anal anal porno anal porno izle arap porno asa akira porno asyalı porno bangbros porno bangbros porno izle banyoda sikis başörtülü porno beeg porno izle beyaz tenli porno izle biseksuel porno izle bisexsuel porno brandi love porno brazzers brazzers porno izle canli porno canli porno izle çinli porno çinli porno izle ensest porno ensest porno izle ensest seks erotik porno erotik porno izle esmer porno esmer porno izle etek altı fake agent fake taxi fake taxi porno fantazi pornoları fantezi porno izle fetiş porno fetiş porno izle fetish fransız porno fransız porno izle full hd hg porno izle gangbang porno genç kız porno izle genç kız sikişi genç teen porno izle gizli çekim porno gizli çekim pornosu grup pornosu grup porno grup porno izle hd pornolar hd porno hd porno izle hemşire porno hemşire pornosu hizmetçi porno hizmetçi porno izle ingiliz porno japon pornoları japon porno kızlık bozma kızlık bozma porno izle konulu porno konulu porno izle koreli porno köylü pornoları kumral porno kumral porno izle latin pornoları latin porno latin porno izle lezbiyen pornoları lezbiyen porno lezbiyen porno izle lisa ann porno liseli pornoları liseli porno liseli porno izle manken porno manken porno izle masaj porno izle masturbasyon porno izle masturbasyon pornoları mature porno mia khalifa porno mia malkova porno milf porno izle mobil porno mobil porno izle öğrenci porno izle öğretmen porno izle okul porno izle olgun kadın pornosu olgun porno oral porno oral porno izle oral seks porna izle pornhub pornhub porno izle porno film izle porno indir porno izle porno resimler porno star porntube porno izle redtube redtube pornoları riley reid porno rokettube rus pornoları rus porno rus porno izle sakso blowjob porno izle sarışın pornoları sarışın porno sarışın porno izle sarışın pornoları sekreter porno shemale sikiş sikiş sikiş izle şişman porno siyahi pornoları suriyeli pornoları swinger porno tecavüz porno teen porn türbanlı pornoları türbanlı porno türk pornoları türk porno türk porno izle türkçe altyazılı porno türkçe altyazılı porno izle xhamster pornoları xhamster porno xhamster porno izle xnxx xnxx porno xnxx porno izle xvideos xvideos porno izle yaşlı porno yeşilçam porno izle youjizz youporn youporn porno izle zenci porno güvenilir bahis siteleri bahis siteleri casino deneme bonusu casino siteleri deneme bonusu para yatırma bonusu bahis siteleri casino siteleribahis sitesi para yatırma